Sunday, May 8, 2011
Thursday, May 5, 2011
The main shrine of this Buddhist complex lay in the southeastern part of the mound, about 320' to the south of monastery 2 and about 100' to the southeast o f monastery -1. It was a semi cruciform shrine with terraced ambulatory passages, measuring as a whole 125' north –south and 87’ 6" east –west .It was entered from the north, the assembly hall or the mandapa was in the center of the shrine. There were 3 ambulatory passages at three heights. The width of these passages was not uniform, varying between 4 and 6 in the highest terrace. In the lower terraces it was wider and more irregular, St the level of the lowermost terrace the outer facade of the shrine was decorated with bas-reliefs made of terracotta plaques. The utter wall at the ground level shows a combination of projections , recessions and offsets and was decorated with a series recessed panels made of mounded or carved bricks.bronze images, terracotta plaques, decorated bricks and inscribed terracotta sealing constitute the major antiquities found at the site , apart from the usual range of minor antiquities including pottery, The discussion on pottery is not accompanied illustrations and does not go much beyond the classification of the material in two groups- gray ware pottery and pink ware pottery . More than 60 bronze images have been recovered, mostly from inside the cells, although belonging to the late occupational level of the site, some of them could have been fashioned earlier and preserved in the monastery , All the images fund have been reported to have had back slabs and high pedestals, they represent the Buddha or Dhyani Buddha, Bodhisattva and Bodhisaktis . The images of akshobhya are said to be more numerous among the Dhyani Buddha figures. In the range of the Bodhisattava figures, Avaokitesvare is supposedly more common and the images of the different varieties of Tara dominate the range female figure .No large, life-like bronze images has been found , but a large and inscribed pedestal suggests that such figures existed . Some images are inscribed and all of them have one of two inscribe sealing attracted to the back of the back slap. It has been observed that ‘their elongated slim body, thin waist, broad chest and graceful developed features recalling the classical pala art ether standing or seated on elevated padmasana with or without any separate pedestal, are somewhat different from those of Mainamati which are characterized by more squat body , simple to crude style and more elaborate and prominent back slab and pedestals with foliage and there ornamental devices below the seat. The terracotta plaques are of two general sizes and belong to two essentially typological groups which have been somewhat inaptly described as early figures ,animals and birds and various geometric and floral compositions , The in influence of the Gupta classical art these terracotta’s and adds :In whatever aspect they are considered these terracotta’s and adds in whatever aspect they are considered ,these terracotta have apparently made a significant contribution to the art tradition of Bangladesh ,There is a descriptive catalogue of 27 terracotta plaques .A large number of ornamental bricks which were used to decorate the outer wall of the shrine along with terracotta plaques have been obtained. The common designs are the lotus petal, stepped pyramid , dental edge , wavy lines floral and chain motifs ;the lotus petal and stepped pyramid designs are the most common designs on ornamental bricks not bricks at Vhasu vihar but also at Mainamati , Paharpur and there Buddhist sites .more than 250 inscribed terracotta sealing out of which more than a hundred are decipherable have been obtained in the Bhasu Vihar excavations .These have been divided into four groups : sealing with two lines of inscriptions below the traditional dharmachakra symbol flanked by two deer ;the inscription could not be satisfactorily read. sealing inscribed only with personal names such as Junaraksita , Dharmadeva, etc.; these constitute the vast majority of the excavated sealing . sealing bearing the formula of the Buddhist creed.a small number of sealing bearing only floral and geometric symbols .The fact that the inscribed material from Bhasu Vihar has not been properly read and published has to be regretted . It may be noted that we still do not have a idea of the inscription on the large bronze pedestal of many smaller inscriptions of the bronze images.
Sunday, May 1, 2011
Friday, April 29, 2011
More than 20 mounds have been listed in the Mainamati- Lalmai hill area on Mainamati. These mounds have been ‘protected’ the existence of more than 50 sites in the area. The details of these additional sites seem to be unrecorded. The location of these mounds is to the west of the Comilla-Brahmanbaria road, a little beyond the crossing of the road with the Dhaka-Chittagong highway. The highest of these mounds is 30’ high from the level of the surrounding plain.Which is only a few feet high from the flat level, lies to its south. Mound no. 1B is a little further to the south and marked only by a scatter of old bricks and potsherds.These two mounds are near the Brigadier’s bungalow in the cantonment, mound no. 2 being to its west and mound no. 2A being to its east. The first one whose height is said to be 100’ including the height of the natural ridge is higher and larger than the second one.This Mound is about a mile to the northwest of kutila mura. A big water tank of the company line lise on the northern fringe of the mound. It is located about 3 miles to the north of salban Vihar and the west of the main road of the cantonment. A big mound 650’ square and about 15’high, this is about a mile to the north of the Bangladesh Academy of Rural Development outside the southern gate of the cantonment. Although unexcavated, the mound, about a furlong to the south of Ananda Raja’s Palace, showed the outline 250’ square of a monastery surrounding a central shrine.This is about half a mile to the south Ananda Vihar orAnanda Raja’s Palace yielded the surface indications of a 400’ square monastery with a central a shrine with massive walls, 6’ square chamber might have been created on the raised foundation and possibly as a part of cellular sub-structure, as at Gokul near Mahasthangarh..This mound is to the north of the Kotbari road and stands on a 60’ high ridge. A fairly large mound about half a mile to the west of Rupban Mura , this has been cut across by the Comilla-Kalir bazar road. This is the first site to have been discovered in the Mainamati-Lalmai complex. The indications of a 300’square monastery enclosing a cruciform temple with about 100’ long sides were noticed here. Situated immediately outside the eastern boundary of the Bangladesh Rifle’s office, this mound stands on a 60’ high ridge. Brick-robbing during the second world war led to the discovery of a 400’ square monastery enclosing a cruciform central shrine with re-entrant angles and recessed corners, embellished further by terracotta plaques and mouldings. Among other things, seven post containing hundreds of bronze votive images were discovered here, but only 13 of them reached the archaeologists. ‘The iconographic details and workmanship of these images are similar to those of the inscribed votive bronzes recovered from jewelry in Chittagong District, assignable to the ninth-eleventh century.This apparently undisturbed mound about 150 yards square is to the west of the Kotbari mound.: This mound is located almost in the central part of the Mainamati-Lalmai village and the name of a neighbouring village is still called Salbanpur.About a mile to the west of salban Vihar, this mound is located on the western fringe of the Mainamati hill. This mound is in the area of Ujirpur Mura , being about half a mile to its south.This mound is situated close to the village of uttar Vijaypuar, about 3 miles to the south of Salban Vihar.About 5 miles to the southwest of salban Vihar , this mound lies on a ridge in the eastern fringe of the Lalmai hills. This mound is located near the crossing of the Comilla-Chandpur and Comilla –Barura roads, about half a mile to the north of Lalmai Railway Station. This marks virtually the southwestern there have corner of the Lalmai ridge. On the top of the hill from where a good view is obtained of the dark and placid water of Daitya Dighi lying at its feet, there are some modern temples. Stone images here : Manjuvara, a variety of Bodhisattva Manjusri, and Surya. These two images are missing these days. It is near the Brigade Headquarters of the Bangladesh Regiment. This is the northernmost mound, also known as Queen Mainamati’s palace.
The site, or rather, a complex of sites, located in a large and undulating valley on both sides of the Tulsi-Ganga rivers, is in the panchbibi police station in the Bagura district and about 15 miles to the northeast of Paharpur. The remains apparently comprise some small mounds and a main settlement site. A number of solid stone blocks scattered along and in the vicinity of the river banks imply the existence of a stone-built bridge or a landing stage at this point. This has been dated to the pala period, although there is no positive proof in support of this dating. The reference point in the exploration report on Patharghata is a modern catholic mission, and a number of mounds have been reported in its vicinity. One of these mounds is 25 ft high and the whole area is strewn with ancient potsherds, bricks-bats, fragments of terracotta plaques and stone sculptural and architectural pieces. A small mound 50 ft across also near the Catholic mission, shows traces of a small temple with basement walls made of dressed and polished stone blocks. The carvings on the surviving architectural fragments suggest the pala period. A stone lintel piece with a frieze of garland-bearing dwarfs was found lying on the other side of the river. In the same area a mound called the Kasia Bari seems to be important both because of its size high and the number of Brahmanical black-stone images lying under a banyan tree on its top. The mound of Naupukuria is a little away from the mission to its west. It has been called an extensive settlement site. ‘Here extensive remains of stone and bricks walls, foundations, landing stages and probably a workshop for dressed and squared stone blocks are found ruthlessly exposed and mercilessly damaged and removed by brick-hunters, thus revealing some plans of large buildings one called Dhanabhandar potsherds, brickbats, terracotta and worked stone fragments are found all over the ruins. Recovery of some stone images from here mounds are also found in the neighbouring villages, and one of them, called the Uchai mound, perhaps shows the basement of a Buddhist stupa or shrine. This circular mound is almost fully occupied by a solid structure with thick cross-walls, the core being solidly filled with brick-bats.What is significant from the point of view of the present chapter is that in the collection of antiquities kept in the catholic mission house one could see pieces of gadrooned NBP pottery. What is of further interest is that the Dhaka museums shows in its sculpture gallery a female torso which is listed from Patharghata and rendered unmistakably in the kushan style. This seems to be an unpublished specimen. The NBP pieces and this female torso unmistakably establish an early historic antiquity for Patharghata some where below the mass of later structural ruins.
The kantanagar temple is situated about 22 kilometers north from the Dinajpur town at the western side by the Dhepa river. Terracotta plaques has a unique emblem bearing this Noborotno temple in subcontinent architect. There were no terracotta plaques found in bangle at that time. The temple is established on a one meter high stone-platform in square and width build. Every sides of the temple are square length 60'-3" and in square built length 51 feet. Around the temple has 8 feet width veranda. Every veranda has 2 gigantic pillars. There are 3 entrances on biggest pillar and wall on every side. This opening entrance has help of arch like leave in built. The main room of the temple is smaller and its darkness.kantagi’s Idol is situated in this room. There are several small room in the around .The western side of veranda from the north that The shirked stair going upward from the northern part of the western veranda is the way of riding the second story. There are four small rooms at the up stairs. The up stair of the temple that is made as the dol stage is smaller than the down stair. There is no room. At the center there is a fifteen feet high apex. Other than this apex there are also nine more apexes. So it was called the nabaratna temple. In 1897 in an earthquake the apexes were broken down.The archeology department can not repair those for lack of model. It is said that the central apex of the temple was 70 feet high. Mr. Fergusson admired this temple a lot. The most remarkable characteristic of this temple is its terra-cotta plaques. Ramayan, mahavarat and many historical stories are made in pictures with terra-cotta. With this there is also the Bengali social life picture. Every pictures of the terra-cotta was unique.The wall of the temple from top to bottom is furnished with various plaques.The plaques are of very high quality. Earthquakes and various natural disasters harm the temple a lot. But even the plaques are made of mud but are still ok. The famous land leader king Prannath rai started the construction work of this temple before his death and his step son great king Ramnath rai ended the work. The king prannath rai died in 1722.king ramnath rai dead in 1760.so it is accepted that the construction of this temple was completed in 1752. There was no existence of the kingship of dinajpur in 1452. in 17th century the kingdom was established and king prannath was the second king .
Friday, April 22, 2011
The name Bhasu Vihar was first used by cunningham and since then it has been current in the archaeological literature ,The mortee common name is ‘Vasu Vihar’.The site of the complex is about 3-4 miles to the northwest of mahasthangarh , There are two villages Bihar and Bhasu Vihar- both across the Nagar river which is a branch of the karaoya which has formed a loop along the whole of the eastern and southern boundaries of these villages .Bhasu Vihar lies in the north while Bihar lies toi its south.Three mound s and a large number of tanks in these two villages . The mound in Bihar is listed as 300' by 200' by 6' . The two mounds in Bhasu Vihar are reported to have measure 60′ by 60′ by 7′ and 800′ by 750′ by 40. The smaller mound lies to the west of the Bhasu Vihar mound. About he place and the mound. The Nagar was once a much larger river with a river port alled Bihar Bangar nearby . The undated but presumably pala period earthwork which begins in the Pabna area and can be traed intermittently up to the Rangput district also passes through this region. This earthwork is known Bhimwe Jangal, The larger of the two Bhasi Vihar mound is locally known as Narapatir Dhap. It is a complex of five mounds , three large and two small. The ancient occupational remains are said to have extended considerably beyond the limit of the mound proper . The site site is surrounded by a moat-like depression on all sides except for a part of the west but one cannot be sure of the issue. The one reported by cunningham has now been filled up but the tank to the south of the site still exists and is known as Khingrailer Dighi. On the basis of his wide experience of Buddhist sites in Bangladesh, There have a large water tanks are invariably found associated with ancient ruins in Bengal . specially of the Budhist culture , In fact, a large Budhist establishment without a tank of comparable size is almost unheard of in bangladesh .The second mound which lies less than half a male to the west northwest of Bhasu Vihar is known as sannyasir Dhap There is tank known as sasanker Dighi to the south of the mound. This possibly contains the ruins of a small temple.a monastery named po-shi-po was situated 4 miles to the west of Mahasthangarh and this tallied with the position of Bihar in relation to Mahasthangarh .This brought that it was this name which was related to the chinese pilgrin’s po-shi-po :here the pilgrim found a grand monastery ,remarkable for the size and height of its towers.It was occupied by no less than seven hundred monks,who studied the Mahayana and men famous for their learning flocked here from the eastern districts,At a short distance from the monastery there was a stupa built by asoka , on the site where Buddha had explained his law to the Devas.Near this was a spot where the last four Buddhist had taken exercise and rested.